George Emil Palade


George Emil Palade (1912-) Nobel Prize Laureate for Medicine (1974) for discoveries concerning the structural and functional organization of the cells.


1912: He is born on the 19th of November in Iasi, Iasi County
- M.D. from the School of Medicine of the University of Bucharest and Member of the Faculty of the School of Medicine
1945: Goes to the United States for postdoctoral studies and becomes a naturalized citizen of the United States in 1952.
1946: Joined A. Claude at the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research
1948: Appointed assistant professor at Rockefeller; - progressed from assistant professor to full professor of cytology and head of the department until 1973
1973: Moves to Yale University Medical School as professor and chair of the Section of Cell Biology.
1974: Nobel Laureate in Medicine for discoveries concerning the structural and functional organization of the cell (shared with Albert Claude and Christian de Duve).
1983: Becomes a senior investigator and Advisor to the Dean
1986: He is awarded the National Medal of Science of USA
1990: Moves to University of California at San Diego as Professor of Medicine in Residence and Dean for Scientific Affairs

Developed tissue-preparation methods, advanced centrifuging techniques, and conducted electron microscopy studies that resulted in the discovery of several cellular structures.

Performed many studies on the internal organization of such cell structures as mitochondria, chloroplasts, the Golgi apparatus, and others. His most important discovery was that microsomes, bodies formerly thought to be fragments of mitochondria are actually parts of the endoplasmic reticulum (internal cellular transport system) and have a high ribonucleic acid (RNA) content. They were subsequently named ribosomes.