Climate

Romania's climate range

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Romania's climate range between the mild temperate and the harsher extremes of the continental one. In the centre and west, humid Atlantic climatic characteristics prevail; in the southeast the continental influences of the East European Plain can be felt; and in the far south-east there are even milder sub-Mediterranean influences. This overall pattern, however, is substantially modified by relief, and there are many examples of climatic zones induced by altitude changes.

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The average annual temperature is 52ºF (11ºC) in the south and 45ºF (7ºC) in the north, although, as noted, there is much variation according to altitude and related factors. Extreme temperatures range from 111ºF (44ºC) in the Baragan region to -36ºF (-38ºC) in the Brasov Depression. Average annual rainfall amounts to 26 inches (660 millimetres), but in the Carpathians it reaches about 55 inches (1.400 millimetres), and in the Dobrudja it is only about 16 inches (400 millimetres). Humid winds from the northwest are most common, but often the drier winds from the northeast are strongest. A hot southwesterly wind, the Austru, blows over western Romania, particularly in summer. In winter, cold and dense air masses encircle the eastern partas of the country, with a cold wind known as the Crivat blowing in from the East European Plain, while oceanic air masses from the Azores, in the west, bring rain and mitigate the severity of the cold.